Cinema in france film research essay

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Updated: January 21, 2018

Select a national cinema of your decision to examine its job in articulating a cultural identity. Try to present your remedy by a close reading of at least two movies. (2,000 words)"

Cinema in France is definitely an integral issue in world, the arts and culture in general. This can be understood through many different facets. The first being the very invention of cinema in France by the Lumière brothers, with the first public projection on earth taking place in Paris in 1895. But also many other key elements such as for example George Méliès being regarded as the first director and inventor of scenarios and specialized effects, until more recent features such as the ‘Nouvelle Vague’, the activity of rejection by young film-makers against more academic means of film-making and acting, influencing cinema worldwide until today. In other words, cinema in France is usually well and incredibly active, with creation, exports, audiences, talented directors being continuous. The amount of Art Homes and Festivals are higher than anywhere else in the world, and France has the highest number of displays per million inhabitants, and also the ceremony of the Césars, the equivalent of the Oscars in France. This spots the French video industry third on the planet, behind the united states and India, which makes it the strongest in European countries, with 22% of European films being produced and getting the major market-share of nationally-produced movies in Europe. That is due to its long background in the cinema industry, but also to its more recent policies concerning French movies, and what is known as ‘l’exception culturelle’.

This French concept, basically meaning the French cultural exception, defends everything that is "cultural", in opposition to a "product" and the "market" and covered from no cost enterprise and quotas. The reason being French society, most culturally represented by its dialect, needs to shield itself against any competition that would harm the French lifestyle and substitute it by another one. Everything that refers to Culture in France; authors, musicians, film-makers, and even more are protected against industry laws and this may be the State’s role; as a result there being a Minister of Culture. This is ultimately a reaction against globalization, viewed as dangerous in this impression, and a will to keep or reinforce a nationwide identity. Before World War 1, Pathé and Gaumont dominated the sector and French cinema was first worldwide with regards to quality, amount and diversity. But following the war, this cultural status was substituted by American cinema. This ‘struggle’ of course concerns the USA a lot more than any other, because they are the leading country in the market, and the American hegemony in the rest of the world is evident.

Therefore, France developed a unique financing system to ‘fight’ against the primary threat for French cinema; tv and UNITED STATES cinema. In the 1980′s the French Status put in place quotas in television in favor of audiovisual and cinematographic oeuvres. The primary television channels have to allocate 3.2% of their revenue to cinema, which include 2.5%, minimum, to French films. At the least 50% of French movies must be broadcast. And this is when the now extremely popular pay-channel, Canal+, helped a whole lot, as they must give 20% of their income to get rights. And on each cinema ticket, a tax (11%) is definitely billed to a support fund for foreign films, given that they are co-created with a French producer. In result, over 160 films each year are created, and France ranks third worldwide.

Moreover, an important factor concerning television, may be the amount of broadcast cultural programs on public channels, associated with the ‘exception culturelle’ concept and that helps figure out French cinema better, in the feeling that, a video in France is considered as a message created by the director, on top of the entertainment facet of it. In comparison to most countries, French audiences are very aware of their audiovisual scenery, and experience more films in cinema and on all tv set channels, quite often at primetime, giving them a very different cinematic experience, closer to culture.

In the 1980′s, the Socialist government of that time period, and more specially the Minister of Way of life, Jack Lang, made various efforts to help and promote a far more ‘cultural’ cinema. An objective to marry favorite and cultural cinema, and distribute French cinema domestically and abroad, also in an effort to offset the Hollywood domination. Jack Lang needed a ‘cultural cinema for the masses’, promoting films which were assimilated with French cultural heritage, but that may possibly also provide popular entertainment for a broad public. These particular ‘heritage’ films, or movies de ‘patrimoine’, have played an important part in the French audiovisual landscape from the testmyprep late 1980′s. It was successful as the main element aspects come up with worked perfectly, not being too frankly popular nor too remarkably cultural. This genre, seems to dominate international perceptions of French cinema, although of course right now there is a lot more diversity.

The first prominent exemplory case of this kind, was Claude Berri’s video, Jean de Florette, in 1986, a box how to write a tok essay: tips workplace success, and the earliest high price range film in France, including French ‘stars’, such as Yves Montand and indicative of old-institution French cinema, Gérard Depardieu, generally compared as the contemporary equivalent of Jean Gabin or Maurice Chevalier, and the rising Daniel Auteuil, for which this movie marked the start of his career as a significant actor. It is drawn upon the favorite novels of French author, Marcel Pagnol, continuing and developing furthermore the traditions of literary adaptations. This blend of elements together with the natural places in Provence, evoking nostalgia, and celebrating the landscape, the annals and the lifestyle of France, essentially contemporizes the film all together.

At once, Jean de Florette marks continuity in French cinema, with its central locations mainly staying Paris and the South, quite often opposing them as well. In this film the emphasis is on days gone by; past values and recent issues. But a history that is not so far away as it has and still marks France’s national identity, which film was made to reinforce this by a whole aesthetic of nostalgia, tending to idealize days gone by and the region’s and the country’s geography, taking part in the protectionist cultural imperatives.

France relies a whole lot on its previous to vehicle its nationwide identity, and that’s the reason canonical source-texts, by the greatest French authors were and so are often applied as basis for movies. The past, in Jean de Florette, can be used as a spectacle, the nation’s territory, the landscape of Provence evokes the country’s nostalgia, as it idealises its rural former, showing the French industry’s might to affirm itself through the representation of its recent. Simply because it offers a company cultural level, marked in the country’s history, in a time where notions of national identity were, and still will be, unstable, with the globalization and issues of immigration in the 1980′s.These problems can be found in the history itself, with problems of greed,

materialism, identity, exclusion concerning the key character’s Jean, the outsider, and Papet Soubeyran and Ugolin, the set up ‘peasants’, and at the time it had been suggested that the way Jean was cared for by the locals, represented the anti-immigration movement, developing at that time.

Now, it may be stated that in the film, days gone by, represented by Provence itself, is the main character. Through a variety of panoramic and static ‘tableau shots’, Berri displays it as an idyllic place, providing visual sites for countrywide identification, as it’s not only just about the most symbolic regions in France, nonetheless it frequently speaks to the spectator who oftentimes may contain childhood recollections of the journeys down south, to visit family. This feeling could be experienced in the opening sequence, where a car voyage is shown, without demonstrating the type, which gives a sense of intimacy. The spectator includes a view from the windows, and a sense of return to days gone by, going back to character, from urban to rural, with many factors that could be viewed as stereotypical, such as the very long winding roads, the crowing cock each morning, the magnificence of the mountains. Therefore the emphasis on the geographical setting up is the main element in the film, but likewise the somewhat stereotypical photos of Provence. The individuals, first of all, add a patriarch, and loud southerners, an outsider, farmer, an introverted peasant, and a bad guy of course. These individuals all undertake traditional rural activities, and the action occurs in the just about all emblematic Provençal and rural spots: the café, the market, the fountain, the square, together with the key spaces of the actions in the film, becoming Jean’s house and backyard, the Soubeyran’s house, the village and the mountain, which build-up a sense of place and identity.

Of course another key aspect of the region is very much reliant on dialogue, which reinforces the specificity of the film within the spot. The accent of Provence is very marked, and obviously illustrates the difference between the locals and Jean, with his ‘standard spoken french’, who represents ‘frenchness’ for most foreigners through Gérard Depardieu, and marks the binary of Paris/province, meaning anywhere outside of Paris. Similarities for some of Paul Cézanne’s paintings can be found in some of the bar scenes, reminding the ‘Card players’ series and ‘The Smoker’, but as well the mountain panoramas, recalling his renowned paintings of ‘Mont Ste Victoire’. The backdrop characters also provide an area color and credibility, with the game of ‘boules’ and the pastis also being standard associations.

In essence, Berri employed this film to emphasize Provence as a French, cultural, historical location, representing days gone by and everything the French can determine to the region. Immediately after Jean de Florette, the sequel, Manon des Resources, came out. They were filmed as a whole over the period of seven months. In the long term, they did much to promote tourism in your community, causing fascination internationally, as the film was incredibly successful, inspiring authentic authenticity of rural France.

Of course, many powerful films of the type followed, especially, Cyrano de Bergerac, with Depardieu, also a literary adaptation, which earned Perfect Foreign Film Oscar in 1990, and contributed to broaden and revive France’s historical national identity.

Now, a binary opposition was mentioned previously, and it comes with the notion of movies in Paris. Paris, the administrative centre, the town of love, arts, not to mention of cinema. For many, Paris truly represents France, of training this is a more international perception, nonetheless it still maintains its placement in France’s background and key elements in the country’s culture.

A film that just lately played upon many key cultural components, giving it an internationally success in 2001, is Le Fabuleux Destin D’Amélie Poulain, by Jean-Pierre Jeunet. Again it might be explained that Amélie Poulain celebrates nostalgia. The nostalgia of typically French and Parisian aspects of life. The action is defined in Montmartre, a ‘quartier’ of Paris, popular for being where many artists set up themselves living la ‘bohème’, also a classic setting observed in many films, such as for example Les 400 coups (Truffaut, 1959), French Cancan (Jean Renoir, 1955), Lautrec (Roger Planchon, 1998) or Zazie dans le métro (Louis Malle, 1960). The particular aspect of the film is normally that it’s seen through the eye of the key character Amélie, gives it an enchanting and idealized feature, picturesque and clearly serving many stereotypes, a reason for its national and international achievements. Many key elements can be found, the grocers, the café, the metro station, the scooter, the good old painter, and the different views of Paris in general. At different occasions in the film, Amélie is viewing ‘Jules et Jim’ on television set, a vintage of François Truffaut, which is a testimony of the importance of French cinema and the effect of the brand new Wave on current film-makers. The photography of the film is quite special, and contributes to this nostalgic feeling, generally displaying two colors, reddish and green. The account is very simple, and could be looked at as today’s fairytale, but it may be the way it really is told, and the background and atmosphere of the whole that give an element to it that could be considered French, culturally.

This very atmosphere is also majorly due to its magnificent music that accompanies Amélie all over the place she goes. The fresh composer, Yann Tiersen, utilized music from his earlier album, but also composed 19 music and variants for the film. The main motive of the film shows up in several variations, expressing distinct moods. Tiersen’s music, largely includes accordion and piano, and what even more can the accordion refer to than ‘frenchness’; a marker of days gone by, at the time of the ‘guinguettes’, open air dancing establishments outside the center. The accordion vehicles a known cliché, but as well nostalgia and marginality, and is certainly practically the real middle of the film.

This retrospective to ‘guinguettes’, is reprised in different ways, with references to the ‘Moulin de la Galette’, a Montmartre guinguette, that was painted by Toulouse-Lautrec, Renoir and Van Gogh in the 1870′s and 1880′s. The reference to Renoir can be repeated with the type of Dufayel, the previous painter neighbour, who repeats the same painting each year, by Renoir, ‘The Luncheon of the Boating Party’ (1881). This obsession and the repetition, try to make what was previously, present. That is also marked in the many repetitions of the accordion which anchor the film nostalgically in the time of the guinguettes, between 1880 and 1940. The accordion signifies a nationwide identity, but that’s very particular to Paris, and the imaginary this place evokes; romanticism, and some exoticism.

At the time, the two presidential prospects for 2002, Jacques Chirac and Lionel Jospin, publicly marked their appreciation of the film, and viewers were experienced clapping eagerly in the end of the film in cinemas, a very rare taking place in France, and which testifies the important role cinema features in French culture and society.

France treats cinema extremely seriously,

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